Historical developments of pair work
Pair work was used at different times, places and cultures and over again for the education process by testing newly discovered.
Bell discovered the helper system in India, and developed it with Lancaster on to the Bell-Lancaster system. Based on Father Greg Girard worked in Switzerland, his form of mutual learning and established his "Enseignement mutuel" with great success.
Egger (1947) sets to represent the following: P. Girard was a book in his hands, which explains a new teaching method, the Bell and Lancaster had done in England. This was a "mutual" instruction, where students teach each other, as opposed to "unilateral" classes where the teachers taught alone. In reciprocal teaching, it was to train the students awakened as an assistant teacher. In this way, as many subdivisions as possible, there were gifted students who had some teaching talent. Of course, the teachers monitored them in their office to intervene where it was urgently needed. . . . . He went his own way but also by the two teaching methods combined. Henceforth, P. Girard, this method. . . strongly emphasized. . . So in 1818 in his closing speech: "Finally came the year 1816, and we learned of the reciprocal teaching. What a happy discovery! They allowed us to come back to our initial plans, and to give every student the education he needed and wanted.
Following the pattern of the elementary school Fryburger such schools "Girardin", and we find them in Italy, France and Spain. . . . .
The rise of the school in Fryburg was of course not go unnoticed. Soon people came from near and far. Dr. Bell from England admired his pupils, Enrico Mayer from Italy was an enthusiastic followers;. . . Pestalozzi said after the visit of Girard College and observation of its form of reciprocal teaching: "This monk makes dirt into gold" (p. 95 ff)
Development of the rotating pair work RZ
The tradition begins with Alexander the RZ Rivin. Rivin was first in the Ukrainian Youth for a higher education career in the 1920s from. At that time, the illiteracy rate was very high. Here he organized the teacher training that was used in the educational program 'struggle against illiteracy'.
With the communist revolution in Russia were in the ministries, many well-trained officials dismissed for political reasons. In its place, workers were set so that all senior positions were eventually filled by untrained members of the party. Rivin offered to those unskilled officials systematically training for their tasks. The training was carried out by Rivin voluntary for all officers in the evening classes. As a training manager, he was a student. 1500 participants were the engineering diploma. This training took place in years from 1929 1932
Methods: The illiteracy know everyday words, such as the month names, names of weekdays and names of group members. Participants train on each other starting from these everyday words. Systematic change of partners led to the particular success of this approach.
This educational initiative was identified with the slogan 'the fight against illiteracy'.